Nanoscale objects move fast and oscillate billions of times per second. Such movements occur naturally in the form of thermal (Brownian) motion while stimulated movements underpin the functionality of nano-mechanical sensors and active nano-(electro/opto) mechanical devices. Here we introduce a methodology for detecting such movements, based on the spectral analysis of secondary electron emission from moving nanostructures, that is sensitive to displace- ments of sub-atomic amplitude. We demonstrate the detection of nanowire Brownian oscillations of ~10 pm amplitude and hyper- spectral mapping of stimulated oscillations of setae on the body of a common flea. The technique opens a range of opportunities for the study of dynamic processes in materials science, nanotechnology and biology.
The UK’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) has announced funding for a five-year research programme, from Feb. 2021, on NEXT GENERATION METROLOGY DRIVEN BY NANOPHOTONICS. This collaboration between the University of Southampton’s Zepler Institute for Photonics & Nanoelectronics and the University of Huddersfield’s Centre for Precision Technologies will harness the latest advances in nanophotonics, plasmonics and metamaterials research to develop optical metrology tools and measurement techniques that can be deployed in the real-world and novel metrology concepts for nanotechnology.
Work at Southampton will be led by Prof Nikolay Zheludev, Prof Kevin MacDonald, Dr Eric Plum and Dr Jun-Yu(Bruce) Ou. The Programme is supported by project partners including major metrology instrumentation companies Taylor Hobson and Renishaw, as well as QinetiQ, Qioptiq, and academic partners at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
The focused ion beam technology uses a stream of accelerated gallium ions as a tool to blast away atoms and molecules so any shape can be carved on the nanometre scale. you can find a few examples in the Beauty of Nanofabrication page.
The first metamaterial electro-optic modulator for the telecommunications band
Current efforts in metamaterials research focus on attaining dynamic functionalities such as tunability, switching and modulation of electromagnetic waves1. To this end, various approaches have emerged, including embedded varactors2, phase-change media3, 4, the use of liquid crystals5, 6, electrical modulation with graphene7, 8 and superconductors9, and carrier injection or depletion in semiconductor substrates10, 11. However, tuning, switching and modulating metamaterial properties in the visible and near-infrared range remain major technological challenges: indeed, the existing microelectromechanical solutions used for the sub-terahertz12and terahertz13, 14, 15 regimes cannot be shrunk by two to three orders of magnitude to enter the optical spectral range. Here, we develop a new type of metamaterial operating in the optical part of the spectrum that is three orders of magnitude faster than previously reported electrically reconfigurable metamaterials. The metamaterial is actuated by electrostatic forces arising from the application of only a few volts to its nanoscale building blocks—the plasmonic metamolecules—that are supported by pairs of parallel strings cut from a flexible silicon nitride membrane of nanoscale thickness. These strings, of picogram mass, can be driven synchronously to megahertz frequencies to electromechanically reconfigure the metamolecules and dramatically change the transmission and reflection spectra of the metamaterial. The metamaterial’s colossal electro-optical response (on the order of 10−5–10−6 m V−1) allows for either fast continuous tuning of its optical properties (up to 8% optical signal modulation at up to megahertz rates) or high-contrast irreversible switching in a device only 100 nm thick, without the need for external polarizers and analysers.
An electromechanically reconfigurable plasmonic metamaterial operating in the near-infrared
J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev
Nature Nanotech. 8, 252-255 (2013) doi: 10.1038/NNANO.2013.25
Exotic optics: Metamaterial world
Nature: News Feature, Aug 2013 – link
Electrical signals dictate optical properties
Nanotechnology Now, Mar 2013 – link
Electrical Signals Dictate Optical Properties
Science Daily, Mar 2013 – link
Electrical signals dictate optical properties of metamaterial
Laser Focus World, Mar 2013 – link
Metamaterial with adjustable optical properties
R&D, Mar 2013 – link
Variable-property metamaterial has optical application potential
the ENGINEER, Mar 2013 – link
The first demonstration of light driven optomechanical metamaterials exhibiting giant nonlinearity in the near infrared.
Metamaterial nanostructures actuated by light give rise to a large optical nonlinearity. Plasmonic metamolecules on a flexible support structure cut from a dielectric membrane of nanoscale thickness are rearranged by optical illumination. This changes the optical properties of the strongly coupled plasmonic structure and therefore results in modulation of light with light.
Giant nonlinearity of an optically reconfigurable plasmonic metamaterial
J. Y. Ou, E. Plum, J. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev
Adv. Mater. 28, 729-733 (2016) doi: 10.1002/adma.201504467